A boat is a free-going nautical vessel used to transport people or goods and to rescue people in distress on the water. The lifeboat belongs to the category of collective-use life-saving appliances along with rescue boats, life-rafts, appliances and raft-cabins.
The boat should provide rescue from the moment they left the main vessel. Under the seats in the boat are sealed boxes filled with air or foam, which do not allow her to drown, even if the vessel capsizes. The main materials for the manufacture of lifeboats - is metal or fiberglass. Today only closed boats equipped with a special waterproof closure are used.
Lifeboats must meet a number of technical requirements. So, they must have a reserve of buoyancy even when filled with water, have high stability and guarantee self-recovery on an even keel when tilting. In addition, all lifeboats are equipped with a mechanical engine with the possibility of remote control from the wheelhouse and an internal combustion engine with compression ignition. In this case, the fuel reserve should be enough for a 24-hour engine at full power. Boats should have double strong hulls and fire-resistant glass windows, and the deckhouse should provide all-round visibility. Orange is another prerequisite for a lifeboat. The following information is applied to the sides of the indelible paint: the name of the vessel and port of registry, the boat's boat number, its capacity and parameters. Reflecting tapes should be glued along the entire perimeter of the vessel, as well as the same crosses in the bow and stern parts. Since, under extreme conditions, non-professionals have to take control of the rescue tool, the boat must be provided with instructions for starting and using the engine. Such an instruction should be located near the controls.
Depending on the type, route and number of people on the ship, the number of lifeboats that must be on board is determined. This is usually 100% or 200% of the number of people.